عنوان الدراسة :
Factors Hampering Research in Sudan Universities With Reference to Problem Formulation and Hypotheses.
إسم الباحث :
Dr. Mustafa Shazali Mustafa
تاريخ النشر :
It is said that epistemology is the science of knowing. Methodology as a subfield of epistemology might be called the science of finding (Rubin, Babbie: 1993). Knowing and finding are the keystone of inquiry when undertaking social researches. So, sometimes we know very little, and sometime we know a lot about a particular phenomenon. Research methodologists adopt for each kind of the different scenarios a method of research. That is when we know very little, we adopt qualitative methods to build theory that can be tested in future studies and to advance also our conceptualization of it. We use quantitative methods to study a phenomenon about which we already know much. Before mentioning the aim of writing this paper, let me cite something from Perry (1984) and then analyze his methodology which Mary Kelly in Perry’s blurb appreciatively described as being as “comprehensive as it is incisive”. Perry has inductively shown a segregation of science from liberal arts in the intellectual life of the universities in America by the following propositions “…. Students of engineering or agriculture were beyond their reach, and science increasingly seemed split off from philosophical inquiry or artistic appreciation. The defenders of culture sometimes disparage those great devices of specialization, the Ph. D. and the dissertation, as enfeebling enemies of rich and genteel discourse. Though the term two cultures’ was introduced by the British scientist novelist C. P. Snow only in 1959, in fact the Post – Civil War University witnessed a segregation of science from liberal arts that would have astonished Cotton Mather or Thomas Jefferson and that has remained a prominent feature of intellectual life ever since. Perry( 1984: 286). The relationship between the variables which has been observed by Perry; the use of a variable language to construct theory; and the description of the association that might logically be expected to exist between particular attributes of different variables will be discussed later when speaking about research hypotheses. So we will refer to the above citation for exemplification. It has been observed that researches pertaining to social
studies presented lately in Sudan Universities have repeatedly arrived at the same conclusions and expound the same recommendations. Doing a research, I think, is becoming something like drawing a map. That is researchers in order to obtain scientific degrees just imitate each other in all the aspects of the research process. The cartographer map is not like the anthropologist who knows all the realities of the people living and who pursues very closely the realities of their lives. We all know that any scientific study should come as a result of
observing social phenomena. These observations are usually written in the introductory chapter of your thesis. In this chapter as a researcher you should acquaint your readers with the
following: – Research problem.
– Research Limitations.
– Significance of the study.
– Aims of the study.
– Questions of the study.
– Hypotheses of the study
– Definition of the important key terms.
This paper will focus on just two of these issues and will show how they can be scientifically manipulated. We will also attempt to verify the hypothesis which claims that many social researches done lately have arrived at the same conclusions, and made similar recommendations. This lack of original of investigation is considered an impediment to what we need and what we must have in the development of our nation. Granting scientific degrees should be restricted with firm academic requirements by the graduate colleges and university senates in
order to gurantee the right procedures for scientific researches. If these hypotheses were proved to be true that would mean the scientific research process should be fully regarded once again in order to save time and money; centers of research should be reorganized as financial bodies to help foster researchers on the right track.